Working after retirement
Here’s what you need to consider when deciding whether to work in retirement.
Being retired doesn't mean that you have to stop working. You may find satisfaction in having a job that really suits your interests, even if it doesn't pay as much as you previously earned. Continuing to work can also help you stay active and connected.
There can be financial benefits of working after retirement as well. But first, you’ll want to determine if continuing to work in retirement is financially worthwhile for your situation.
In this article:
- Covering essential expenses. Continuing to work can help you pay for essential expenses such as housing, food, utilities and health care without using retirement savings. This could enable you to invest some of your savings more aggressively and could allow more “lifestyle” spending.
- Growing your savings. If your employer offers a 401(k) plan and you’re eligible to participate, you can contribute up to $22,500 plus an additional $7,500 in catch-up contributions (for those age 50 and older) for 2023. If you own a deferred annuity, you can continue saving after you reach 401(k) or IRA annual contribution limit.
- Providing flexibility with the amount of savings you use every year. Factors such as market volatility, interest rates, inflation, health care and risk tolerance affect the percentage of savings you can sustainably spend during retirement (i.e., your withdrawal rate). Earning income can offset these factors to help your savings last.
- Maximizing your Social Security benefits. Although you can start collecting benefits at age 62, waiting to collect can pay off. With each year you delay, your overall benefit increases until reaching the maximum amount at age 70. Social Security benefits are based on your highest 35 years of earnings. Since non-work years don’t factor into the benefit calculation, working longer could increase your Social Security benefit.
If your Social Security benefits are your only source of income, they are generally not taxed by the federal government. However, if you work while receiving Social Security, or receive income from other sources (such as wages, pensions, annuities or investments), part of your Social Security benefits may be taxable.
Social Security benefits are subject to tax if the person’s combined income (including tax exempt interest) exceeds certain limits. Up to 85% of Social Security benefits can be taxed.
In addition, if you work after retirement and you start receiving Social Security benefits, your monthly payments may be affected, depending on your age.
The key is how close you are to full retirement age, which varies from 66 to 67 depending on the year of your birth. For people born 1943 to 1954, the full retirement age is 66, and it's 67 for people born in 1960 or after. You can find your full retirement age at www.ssa.gov.
If you begin Social Security when you are…
|In the years before you reach full retirement age||In the year you turn full retirement age||Older than full retirement age|
|$1 is deducted from your benefits for every $2 you earn above the annual earnings1 limit||$1 is deducted from your benefits for every $3 you earn over the limit||No limit on earnings1|
|Annual earnings limit: $21,240 in 2023||Only applies to earnings1 for months prior to turning full retirement age||You receive credit for the earnings, which may increase your Social Security benefits in the future|
|Annual earnings limit: $56,520 in 2023|
If you retire during a year in which you have already earned more than the yearly earnings limit, you may receive a full Social Security check for any whole month you are considered retired (with limited earnings and not performing substantial services in self-employment), regardless of earnings prior to retirement.
Many people assume they must begin taking Social Security as soon as they retire, but that's not the case. The longer you wait, the more each payment may be. If you are healthy and don't need the income right away, it may be wise to delay as long as you can up to age 70. In addition, if you are working after retirement age, you are still accumulating benefits (and perhaps earning delayed retirement credits), which may increase your payment amount when you do start taking Social Security.
Ultimately, you have to decide whether it's better to begin receiving smaller Social Security benefits at an earlier age, or to wait to collect larger monthly benefits. The answer depends on your situation — here are factors to consider:
- Need for current income
- Your health
- Whether you intend to work in retirement
- Future financial obligations
- Possible sources of income (such as an annuity or inheritance)
- How long you expect to live
- Marriage status (If you are married, it's wise to determine which type of payment you should take when your spouse passes away)
Your Ameriprise financial advisor can help you weigh these factors and come to a decision that suits your needs.
If after retirement you work for a new employer while collecting a pension from a previous employer, your pension will not be affected by your earnings.
However, if you work for the same employer from whom you are collecting a pension, they may have specific rules around how you can collect these payments in retirement:
- Full pension payments while working: Some retirement plans let you start collecting a full pension at the retirement age defined by the plan, even if you continue to work for that company.
- Suspended pension payments while working: Other plans suspend your pension payments for the time you are working; they may or may not offer increased payments when you finally retire.
- Phased retirement: This arrangement allows you to work part time, as early as age 62, while collecting some or all your pension benefit. Depending on the plan, your employer may continue to provide medical benefits for you as well. However, if your pension amount is based on the earnings in your final years of work, switching to part time could lower your pension payments.
Should you work in retirement?
There are many factors to consider when deciding whether to work during retirement. An Ameriprise financial advisor can help you determine when to begin taking Social Security, and even work with your employer's HR department to determine the impact of company policies.